DNA Synthesis Definition and Methods
DNA synthesis definition
DNA synthesis is defined as the process by which copies of nucleic acids are strung together to form a longer DNA sequence within a laboratory setting.
DNA synthesis processes
DNA oligomers are the foundation of the DNA synthesis process. The essential feature of DNA synthesis is that no naturally isolated DNA is used. This step deviates from the traditional method of studying genetics, by which a preexisting genetic sequence was extracted from an organism to be amplified and later studied. With gene synthesis we, at Synbio Technologies, are capable of generating de novo genetic sequences that may not currently be present anywhere within nature. Although clonal plasmid-based intermediates might exist during the assembly of a target DNA, every base originates as a phosphoramidite molecule at the beginning of DNA synthesis. Today, all DNA synthesis methods begin with solid-phase phosphoramidite chemistry to construct single-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size between 10 and 100 base pairs in length. These single stranded molecules are then enzymatically assembled into larger molecules. This process is then repeated until the required sequence length is generated. This process has been perfected by Synbio Technologies through our three phase Syno Platform. This platform offers the ability to generate sequences up to and including 200kb in length with one hundred percent accuracy, guaranteed to be identical to the sequence requested by the customer.
DNA synthesis assembly in yeast
A commonly used method of DNA fragment assembly is through the use of a yeast intermediate. The yeast, better known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can synthesize single-stranded DNA with a minimum length of 38 overlapping base pairs and a linear double-stranded vector in one transformation event. In this way, oligonucleotides can synthesize DNA for a wide range of lengths, ranging from as few as 20bps in length to as large as 200bps in length. DNA synthesis assembly in yeast is a useful method for building synthetic DNA molecules that are relatively large in length. Since yeast have a powerful capacity to synthesize and recombine DNA fragments, yeast has become a model eukaryote for studying numerous cellular processes. In addition to this advantage, homologous recombination in yeast can be used to build DNA fragments from overlapping constituent parts.
TopDown one-step DNA synthesis method
TopDown DNA synthesis is a simple and cost-effective method to assemble a long genetic sequences up to and including 200kb in length. The TopDown DNA synthesis method can be distinguished from conventional gene synthesis methods by two key features. First, the melting temperature of the outer primers is designed to be ~8°C lower than that of the assembly oligonucleotides. Secondly, there are different annealing temperatures that are utilized to selectively control the efficiencies of the oligonucleotide assembly and full-length template amplification. The TopDown DNA synthesis method is an effective way to remove the interference between PCR assembly and amplification. This interference between PCR assembly and amplification have been linked to the development of certain malfunctions within the DNA synthesis process. This demonstrates that TopDown DNA synthesis is a method which can optimize DNA synthesis under certain condition.
Synbio Technologies is a DNA technology company whose main focus is DNA synthesis. This is seen in our high quality products generated by Synbio Technologies’ proprietary Syno® DNA synthesis platform which can synthesize sequences up to and including 200kb in length. This length is characteristic of DNA sequences which make up genes, genomes, and various biological pathways. In addition to this, the professional Syno® Codon software can significantly optimize the original sequences from customers, and provide synthesized DNA sequences with one hundred percent accuracy within 5 days. It is these factors that have led Synbio Technologies to become one of the premier companies within the gene synthesis industry.